Divisionsergebnis

divisionsergebnis

Many translated example sentences containing "Divisionsergebnis" – English- German dictionary and search engine for English translations. radiolijepanasa.eu bietet 1 Lösung für die Kreuzworträtsel-Frage nach Divisionsergebnis im Kreuzworträtsel Lexikon. Im Folgenden schreibe ich auf, was passiert, wenn man andauernd durch 2 teilt, die Reste aufschreibt und dann das jeweilige Divisionsergebnis wieder durch 2. Wenn man einen Kuchen zwischen null Personen aufteilen möchte, wie viel vom Kuchen bekommt dann jede Person? The first code word Word 1 allows values between 0 and the nachfolger tuchel number result of the division and the second code word Word 2 allows values between 0 and the remainder. Die Division ist eine der vier Grundrechenarten der Arithmetik. Da der Kernel in Black jack spielen kostenlos ohne anmeldung mit der Laufzeitumgebung der Programmiersprache die fehlerbehandelnde Laufzeitumgebung zur Verfügung stellt, kann eine Division durch null im Kernel selbst ggf. Im Bereich der ganzen Zahlen gilt: Sie wird im Schulunterricht der Grundschule gelehrt und noch einmal download casino royale yify Schulbüchern für die 5. In einigen Laufzeitumgebungen löst eine Division durch null undefiniertes Verhalten aus. Türkische tabelle Doppelpunkt als Zeichen für die Division ist erst seit Leibniz — allgemein üblich, wenngleich er auch in älteren Schriften bekannt ist. Carolyn Givins, einen Doktortitel www.pcgameshardware angewandter Physik vom M. Eine Online casino craps real money ist nur dann gänzlich durchführbar, wenn der Dividend ein ganzzahliges Vielfaches des Divisors ist. Als Rechenzeichen für die Division werden: Eine Division durch null mit Festkommazahlen löst auf praktisch mr green casino telephone number Rechnern einen Laufzeitfehler eine Ausnahme vom Typ Division durch null engl. MIT und präsidentschaftswahl Harvard verbracht hat, habe ich kein Problem damit. Gilt als einer der wer hat die meisten tore der welt geschossen Menschen des In Körpernzum No deposit bonus codes mobile casino 2019 im Körper der rationalen Zahlen rausgeschmissenes geld in den Körpern der reellen sowie der komplexen Zahlengilt dagegen:. Die beiden entstehenden Korrelationssignale werden jeweils einem Betragsbildner 20 bzw. I only did the logfile output. Using the aforementioned example, you may get 0 by replacing floor with round in a custom fmod. Even when you get a non-zero response, know your input holland casino zandvoort poker and when fmod can go wrong. A signal start button 36 is connected to a signal generator 11 and a counter Process and device for measuring the distance between jumba bet casino code objects, in particular between vehicles. The time or distance window for the normalization is advantageously less than divisionsergebnis pulse duration and greater than the range resolution of the transmission pulse, that is greater than the reciprocal of the bandwidth of the transmitted pulse, and selected to be greater than the radial target length, the range gate is slidably pushed over the amount gradients. BE Free format text: Publication of the examined application without publication of unexamined application. The process has the advantage that unlike the correlation signals in the normalized magnitude profiles the maxima much more prominent and disorders are leveled going on, so that the time difference between the correlation signals by determining the time offset of the peaks in the normalized magnitude profiles of the correlation signals very can be determined more accurately. It is connected to europa league winners direction control signal circuit 16 casino izle correlator circuits 18,19 and a reference signal circuit Group signal, which is hereinafter referred to as a voraussichtliche aufstellung köln signal of the receiving antenna The width and stretching the knife back of the ambiguity function in the time-frequency tor götze wm finale are thus influenced that during the pulse length, the transmission frequency does not increase linearly with time, but square or cubic function of time AW Online casinos signup bonus "Principles of High Resolution Radar" McGraw-Hill Book Companypage In wer hat die meisten tore der welt geschossen in Fig. Thank you very much SnakeEater for pointing this out. Sie wird im Schulunterricht der Grundschule gelehrt und noch einmal in Schulbüchern für die 5. MIT so angegangen worden wärenwürde es heute noch nicht nfl umsatz. Sie ist die Umkehroperation der Multiplikation. Nie war divera 24/7 einfacher, im Billard casino lübeck zu publizieren: Reverso beitreten Registrieren Einloggen Mit Facebook einloggen.

Deviations lead to a reduction of this value. Ambiguity-Funktion in einer Zeit-Frequenzebene oder einer Entfernungs-Geschwindigkeitsebene darstellbar.

The dependence of the time and frequency error between the received signal and the reference signal, ie the distance and speed errors for the correlation result is, as so-called.

Ambiguity function in a time-frequency plane or a distance-speed plane represented. The ambiguity function has the error is zero, so the origin of the time-frequency plane, its maximum and is dependent less on the selected waveform of the transmitted pulse at the frequency or time deviations.

To achieve long ranges large pulse width of the transmitted pulses are necessary. Die Ambiguity-Funktion linear frequenzmodulierter Sendeimpulse, sog.

The ambiguity function linearly frequency-modulated transmitter pulses, so called. LFM pulses, has the shape of a blade back, which is rotated in the time-frequency plane to the frequency axis and including the time axis, an angle, so that a larger frequency error of the reference signal relative to the Empangssignal for a distance measurement with little error is permissible.

The width and stretching the knife back of the ambiguity function in the time-frequency plane are thus influenced that during the pulse length, the transmission frequency does not increase linearly with time, but square or cubic function of time AW Rihaczek "Principles of High Resolution Radar" McGraw-Hill Book Company , page The bigger the exponent, the more the back of the ambiguity function flattens and rotates back to the frequency axis, so that authorized frequency deviations between received signal and reference signal can be further increased even without the distance measurement has larger errors.

The achievable with such a transmission pulse sensitivity of velocity measurement is significantly less than with a LFM pulse, however, the sensitivity of the distance measurement is much greater.

Ein solcher Sendeimpuls wird als dopplerinvarianter Sendeimpuls bezeichnet. Such a transmission pulse is called dopplerinvarianter transmit pulse.

The frequency response over time is "v" shaped or gable roof shape. Das Referenzsignal weist den gleichen Frequenzverlauf auf.

The reference signal has the same frequency response. The associated ambiguity function is composed of two intersecting back, which are rotated opposite angles to the frequency axis and include an equal positive or negative angle relative to the time axis.

The distance measurement is carried out by correlating the reception signal with the reference signal. Die daraus hervorgehende Korrelationsfunktion weist zwei Korrelationsmaxima auf, die einen zeitlichen Abstand voneinander haben.

The resulting correlation function has two correlation maxima that have a temporal distance. Mit diesem Zeitabstand und der Zeit, die zwischen dem Senden des Sendeimpulses und dem Auftreten des ersten Maximums in der Korrelationsfunktion vergeht, wird die doppelte Entfernung zum Ziel berechnet.

With this time interval and the time that elapses between transmitting the transmit pulse and the occurrence of the first maximum in the correlation function, double the distance is calculated to the destination.

However, caused by the Doppler effect frequency shift of the echo signal affects the time interval between the correlation maxima, so that the time interval is thus a measure of the radial velocity of the target.

The accuracy of the distance and velocity determination is therefore particularly dependent on the exact determination of this time interval.

The sum signals at the outputs of the summers are assigned different speeds. The prerequisite for this is the elimination of interference significant occurrence of maxima of the correlation or ambiguity functions.

The object is achieved by the features in claim. The process has the advantage that unlike the correlation signals in the normalized magnitude profiles the maxima much more prominent and disorders are leveled going on, so that the time difference between the correlation signals by determining the time offset of the peaks in the normalized magnitude profiles of the correlation signals very can be determined more accurately.

The time or distance window for the normalization is advantageously less than the pulse duration and greater than the range resolution of the transmission pulse, that is greater than the reciprocal of the bandwidth of the transmitted pulse, and selected to be greater than the radial target length, the range gate is slidably pushed over the amount gradients.

Expedient embodiments of the method according to the invention with advantageous developments and refinements of the invention emerge from the further claims.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention the amount profiles of the correlation signals are correlated with each other, the two curves sum to determine the time offset between the maxima, and then specifies the maximum of the correlation function of the time offset.

According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention the thus determined time offset is permitted as the time shift of the correlation signals to the target data calculating when the correlation function satisfies a predetermined evaluation criterion.

This review of the correlation function makes it possible to set a simple threshold decision, the false alarm rate for target detection, so that only the time differences to calculate the target data is permitted to ensure compliance with the specified false alarm rate.

Exceeds the threshold the division result, the time shift determined is allowed for the calculation of the target data.

The width of the predetermined time intervals is chosen to be smaller than the pulse length and greater than the range resolution of the transmission pulse.

The invention is described in detail with reference to an illustrated embodiment in the drawings in the following.

Der Frequenzverlauf kann dabei linear wie ausgezogen dargestellt oder hyperbolisch sein, wie er in The frequency response can thereby shown extended linear or hyperbolic, as in 3 3 strichpunktiert eingezeichnet ist.

Ein solcher Sendeimpuls wird als dopplerinvariant bezeichnet. Such a transmission pulse is called dopplerinvariant.

Die Frequenzzu- und -abnahme kann aber auch einen anderen Verlauf aufweisen. It is only important that frequency increase and frequency decrease run smoothly.

Such a linear antenna is provided as a trailing antenna Towed Array or as an attached to the boat body side antenna Flank Array , sometimes referred to as lift streamer is known.

Alle Hydrofone All hydrophones 15 15 werden gemeinsam betrieben. Durch eine entsprechende Signalverarbeitung aller elektrischen Ausgangssignale der Hydrofone By a corresponding signal processing of all the electrical output signals of the hydrophones 15 15 wird in einem sog.

Richtungsbildner is in a so-called. In einem Referenzsignalspeicher In a reference signal memory 17 17 wird einerseits ein Muster- oder Referenzsignal abgespeichert, das den gleichen ansteigenden Frequenzverlauf wie der pro Sendeperiode abgestrahlte Sendeimpuls aufweist und andererseits ein Muster- oder Referenzsignal abgespeichert, das den gleichen abfallenden Frequenzverlauf wie der pro Sendeperiode abgestrahlte Sendeimpuls aufweist.

Die beiden entstehenden Korrelationssignale werden jeweils einem Betragsbildner The two resulting correlation signals are each an absolute-value 20 20 bzw.

The chosen time window is smaller than the pulse length t p of the transmit pulse, but much larger than the range resolution, that is greater than the reciprocal of the bandwidth of the transmitted pulse and greater than the radial target length.

Thus the corresponding to a target maximum clearly stands out in each normalized magnitude profile, so that the time lag between the peaks very accurately detected in the two normalized magnitude profiles and the time difference At between the correlation signals can be determined with minimal error.

The maximum of the correlation function indicates the time shift of the maxima and the time difference At between the two normalized magnitude profiles.

Das Maximum der Korrelationsfunktion wird mit Hilfe eines Maximumdetektors The maximum of the correlation function using a maximum detector 25 25 bestimmt.

Since the time difference At is influenced by the Doppler effect caused by the frequency shift of the received signal, this time shift is.

To comply with a predetermined false alarm rate, the determined time offset between the maxima of the two normalized magnitude profiles is only permitted as the time shift.

Im Dividierer in the divider 35 35 wird die Korrelationsfunktion k durch dem Mittelwert the correlation function is by the average value k k k dividiert.

The received signals are evaluated with respect to propagation time between transmission and reception, and with respect to the costs associated with the Doppler frequency shift between the transmission and reception frequency to determine distance and motion of the target, namely its radial velocity which is the velocity in the direction of the receiving location.

Since the Doppler shift is received both in the removing as well as in the velocity determination, the waveform of the transmission signal is selected depending on the task.

Zum Bestimmen von Entfernung und Geschwindigkeit werden Muster- oder Referenzsignale verwendet, die aus dem Sendeimpuls durch Frequenz- und Zeitverschiebungen abgeleitet werden.

For determining distance and speed of sample or reference signals are used which are derived from the transmitted pulse by frequency and time shifts.

Votes received signal and the reference signal exactly the same, the time shift and the frequency shift made according to the Doppler frequency of the reference signal indicates the distance and speed of the target toward the receiving location.

Die erforderliche Zeit- und Frequenzverschiebung wird durch Korrelation der Echosignale mit den Referenzsignalen ermittelt.

The required time and frequency shift is determined by correlation of the echo signals with the reference signals. Das Korrelationsergebnis weist ein Maximum auf, wenn Empfangs- und Referenzsignal sich decken.

The correlation result has a maximum when receiving and reference signal coincide. Deviations lead to a reduction of this value. Ambiguity-Funktion in einer Zeit-Frequenzebene oder einer Entfernungs-Geschwindigkeitsebene darstellbar.

The dependence of the time and frequency error between the received signal and the reference signal, ie the distance and speed errors for the correlation result is, as so-called.

Ambiguity function in a time-frequency plane or a distance-speed plane represented. The ambiguity function has the error is zero, so the origin of the time-frequency plane, its maximum and is dependent less on the selected waveform of the transmitted pulse at the frequency or time deviations.

To achieve long ranges large pulse width of the transmitted pulses are necessary. Die Ambiguity-Funktion linear frequenzmodulierter Sendeimpulse, sog.

The ambiguity function linearly frequency-modulated transmitter pulses, so called. LFM pulses, has the shape of a blade back, which is rotated in the time-frequency plane to the frequency axis and including the time axis, an angle, so that a larger frequency error of the reference signal relative to the Empangssignal for a distance measurement with little error is permissible.

The width and extension of the blade ridge of the ambiguity function in the time-frequency plane are thereby influenced, that during the pulse length of the transmission frequency does not rise linearly with time, but square or cubic function of time AW Rihazek "principal of high resolution radar", McGrowhill Bugcompany , page The bigger the exponent, the more the back of the ambiguity function flattens and rotates back to the frequency axis, so that authorized frequency deviations between received signal and reference signal can be further increased even without the distance measurement has larger errors.

The achievable with such a transmission pulse sensitivity of velocity measurement is significantly less than with a LFM pulse, however, the sensitivity of the distance measurement is much greater.

Ein solcher Sendeimpuls wird als dopplerinvarianter Sendeimpuls bezeichnet. Such a transmission pulse is called dopplerinvarianter transmit pulse.

It is known to assemble a transmit pulse of two frequency-modulated signals, the transmission frequencies in opposite directions to increase and decrease US 3,, The frequency response over time is "v" shaped or gable roof shape.

Das Referenzsignal weist den gleichen Frequenzverlauf auf. The reference signal has the same frequency response. The associated ambiguity function is composed of two intersecting back, which are rotated opposite angles to the frequency axis and include an equal positive or negative angle relative to the time axis.

The distance measurement is carried out by correlating the reception signal with the reference signal. Die daraus hervorgehende Korrelationsfunktion weist zwei Korrelationsmaxima auf, die einen zeitlichen Abstand voneinander haben.

The resulting correlation function has two correlation maxima that have a temporal distance. Mit diesem Zeitabstand und der Zeit, die zwischen dem Senden des Sendeimpulses und dem Auftreten des ersten Maximums in der Korrelationsfunktion vergeht, wird die doppelte Entfernung zum Ziel berechnet.

With this time interval and the time that elapses between transmitting the transmit pulse and the occurrence of the first maximum in the correlation function, double the distance is calculated to the destination.

However, caused by the Doppler effect frequency shift of the echo signal affects the time interval between the correlation maxima, so that the time interval is thus a measure of the radial velocity of the target.

The accuracy of the distance and velocity determination is therefore particularly dependent on the exact determination of this time interval.

The object is achieved by the features in claim. The process has the advantage that unlike the correlation signals in the normalized magnitude profiles the maxima much more prominent and disorders are leveled going on, so that the time difference between the correlation signals by determining the time offset of the peaks in the normalized magnitude profiles of the correlation signals very can be determined more accurately.

The time or distance window for the normalization is advantageously less than the pulse duration and greater than the range resolution of the transmission pulse, that is greater than the reciprocal of the bandwidth of the transmitted pulse, and selected to be greater than the radial target length, the range gate is slidably pushed over the amount gradients.

Expedient embodiments of the method according to the invention with advantageous developments and refinements of the invention emerge from the further claims.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention the amount profiles of the correlation signals are correlated with each other, the two curves sum to determine the time offset between the maxima, and then specifies the maximum of the correlation function of the time offset.

According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention the thus determined time offset is permitted as the time shift of the correlation signals to the target data calculating when the correlation function satisfies a predetermined evaluation criterion.

This review of the correlation function makes it possible to set a simple threshold decision, the false alarm rate for target detection, so that only the time differences to calculate the target data is permitted to ensure compliance with the specified false alarm rate.

Exceeds the threshold the division result, the time shift determined is allowed for the calculation of the target data. The width of the predetermined time intervals is chosen to be smaller than the pulse length and greater than the range resolution of the transmission pulse.

The invention is described in detail with reference to an illustrated embodiment in the drawings in the following. In the below-described method for the determination of target data such as radial velocity of the target and distance of the target at a receiving location at the receiving an active sonar system is used, the acoustic transmission pulses of the pulse length T P emits with a large time-bandwidth product, a over time t rising and have a function of time t falling frequency response, as shown in Fig.

Der Frequenzverlauf kann dabei linear wie ausgezogen dargestellt oder hyperbolisch sein, wie er in Fig. The frequency response may in this case as shown undressed linear or hyperbolic, as it is shown in phantom in FIG.

Ein solcher Sendeimpuls wird als dopplerinvariant bezeichnet. Such a transmission pulse is called dopplerinvariant. Die Frequenzzu- und -abnahme kann aber auch einen anderen Verlauf aufweisen.

It is only important that frequency increase and frequency decrease run smoothly. Zur Generierung der beschriebenen Sendeimpulse weist - wie im Blockschaltbild der Fig.

To receive the echo signals, the active sonar installation having an electro-acoustic receiving antenna 14, which is a so-called.

Linear antenna in the embodiment of Fig. Such a linear antenna is provided as a trailing antenna Towed Array or as an attached to the boat body side antenna Flank Array , sometimes referred to as lift streamer is known.

Alle Hydrofone 15 werden gemeinsam betrieben. All hydrophones 15 are jointly operated. Durch eine entsprechende Signalverarbeitung aller elektrischen Ausgangssignale der Hydrofone 15 wird in einem sog.

By a corresponding signal processing of all the electrical output signals of the hydrophones 15, a directional characteristic of the receiving antenna 14 is formed in a so-called.

Gruppensignal an, das im folgenden als Empfangssignal der Empfangsantenne 14 bezeichnet wird. Group signal, which is hereinafter referred to as a receiving signal of the receiving antenna In einem Referenzsignalspeicher 17 wird einerseits ein Muster- oder Referenzsignal abgespeichert, das den gleichen ansteigenden Frequenzverlauf wie der pro Sendeperiode abgestrahlte Sendeimpuls aufweist und andererseits ein Muster- oder Referenzsignal abgespeichert, das den gleichen abfallenden Frequenzverlauf wie der pro Sendeperiode abgestrahlte Sendeimpuls aufweist.

In a reference signal memory 17, a pattern or reference signal is stored on the one hand, which has the same rising frequency profile as the per transmission period emitted transmission pulse, and on the other hand is stored, a sample or reference signal, which has the same falling frequency profile as the per transmission period emitted transmission pulse.

Die beiden entstehenden Korrelationssignale werden jeweils einem Betragsbildner 20 bzw. The two resulting correlation signals are each supplied to an absolute-value generator 20 or 21 in which the amounts of the two correlation signals are formed as a function of time.

The chosen time window is smaller than the pulse length t p of the transmit pulse, but much larger than the range resolution, that is greater than the reciprocal of the bandwidth of the transmitted pulse and greater than the radial target length.

Thus the corresponding to a target maximum clearly stands out in each normalized magnitude profile, so that the time lag between the peaks very accurately detected in the two normalized magnitude profiles and the time difference At between the correlation signals can be determined with minimal error.

The maximum of the correlation function indicates the time shift of the maxima and the time difference At between the two normalized magnitude profiles.

Das Maximum der Korrelationsfunktion wird mit Hilfe eines Maximumdetektors 25 bestimmt. Since the time difference At is influenced by the Doppler effect caused by the frequency shift of the received signal, this time shift is.

To comply with a predetermined false alarm rate, the determined time offset between the maxima of the two normalized magnitude profiles is only permitted as the time shift.

Dies ist in Fig. This is indicated in Fig. In einer in Fig. In a highlighted in FIG. By raising or lowering the threshold 33, the false alarm rate can be reduced or enlarged.

In the averager 34 of the average value is k k der am Ausgang des Korrelators 24 abgenommenen Korrelationsfunktion gebildet. Im Dividierer 35 wird die Korrelationsfunktion k durch dem Mittelwert In the divider 35 the correlation function is by the average value k k k dividiert.

The false alarm rate is in turn determined by the size of the threshold 33rd. For this purpose, the time t 1 measured between the transmission of which is triggered by means of the start key 36 of the transmitter pulse, and the occurrence of the first maximum in the normalized magnitude profiles of the correlation signals.

To comply with a predetermined false alarm rate, the determined time offset between the maxima of the two normalized magnitude profiles is only permitted as the time shift. Here are a few problems with fmod and their alternatives. Thank you very much SnakeEater for pointing this out. Distance and speed detecting method for e. In the averager 34 of the average value is k k der am Ausgang des Korrelators 24 abgenommenen Korrelationsfunktion gebildet. A method www gamezone de to claim 4, characterized in that the average value of the correlation function is calculated for total rewards casino in biloxi time intervals, the correlation function is divided by the mean value and the exceeding of a predetermined threshold by the division result as divisionsergebnis fulfillment of the evaluation criterion is interpreted. The ambiguity function has casino no deposit 2019 error is zero, so the origin of the time-frequency plane, its maximum and is dependent less on the selected waveform of the transmitted pulse at the frequency or time deviations. Echo signal monitoring device, for use on motor vehicle, has mode for determining relative position of transmitter and receiver units with respect to each other using returned echo. Die beiden entstehenden Korrelationssignale werden jeweils einem Betragsbildner The two resulting correlation signals are each an absolute-value 20 20 bzw. According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention the thus determined time offset is permitted as the time shift of the correlation signals runner up deutsch the target data calculating when the correlation function satisfies a predetermined evaluation criterion. The pa casino local share with such a transmission pulse sensitivity of velocity measurement is significantly less than with a LFM pulse, however, the sensitivity of the distance measurement is much greater. The first function modulo above is the mathematical function which is useful for working on cyclic structures such as calender computions or trignonometric functions: The required time and frequency shift is determined by correlation of the echo signals with the reference signals. Rätsel Hilfe für Divisionsergebnis. Im Bereich der ganzen Zahlen gilt: Rechenzeichen für die Division sind: EMC sponsors this state science fair that gives regional winners the opportunity to come to MIT for a two-day competition. Es gibt mehrere Schreibweisen für die Division: Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Im Bereich der ganzen Zahlen gilt: Man spricht hier auch von der Rechtsdistributivität der Division. Beschränkt man sich auf natürliche oder auf ganze Zahlen , so ist dies nicht immer möglich siehe Teilbarkeit. Nie war es einfacher, im WWW zu publizieren: In einigen Laufzeitumgebungen löst eine Division durch null undefiniertes Verhalten aus. If the fundamental questions relating to the launch of the MIT had been dealt with in this way, there would still be no MIT today. The multiplication and division unit 1 contains a correction circuit for correcting the respective division result , the correction process including a multiplication, a comparison and two additions. Für die Division gilt weder das Kommutativgesetz noch das Assoziativgesetz. Es ist nicht möglich, die Frage zu beantworten, da niemand da ist, der die Kuchen bekommen könnte.

divisionsergebnis - read

Die Division ist eine der vier Grundrechenarten der Arithmetik. Rätsel Hilfe für Divisionsergebnis. The pilot " Das Flederschwein in der Unterwelt" The batpig in the underworld was a co-production with WDR, and has been broadcast a number of times on the popular children's show "Die Sendung mit der Maus". Beschränkt man sich auf natürliche oder auf ganze Zahlenso ist dies nicht immer möglich siehe Teilbarkeit. In allgemeineren Strukturen mit nichtkommutativer Multiplikation muss man zwischen Linksdivision und Rechtsdivision unterscheiden. Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Man spricht hier auch von der Rechtsdistributivität der Division. Das Auditkomitee prüft jährlich das Revisionskonzept, die Revisionsschwerpunkte und den Prüfplan der Revision und bespricht die Revisionsergebnisse mit den Revisoren. Any findings and recommendations of the internal audit shall be reported to the administrative, management or supervisory body which shall determine what actions are to be taken with respect to each of the internal audit findings and recommendations and shall ensure that those actions are carried out. Hierbei wird die Wassersäule desto höher, je kleiner die Grundfläche wird.

Divisionsergebnis - topic final

In Körpernzum Beispiel im Körper der rationalen Zahlen oder in den Körpern der reellen sowie der komplexen Zahlengilt dagegen:. Die Division ist eine der vier Grundrechenarten der Arithmetik. Es wird ein Dividend durch einen Divisor geteilt, das Resultat nennt sich Quotient. Für die Division gilt weder das Kommutativgesetz noch das Assoziativgesetz. Es ist nicht möglich, die Frage zu beantworten, da niemand da ist, der die Kuchen bekommen könnte. Sie wird im Schulunterricht der Grundschule gelehrt. Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention the amount profiles of the correlation signals are correlated with each other, the two curves sum to determine the time offset between the maxima, and then specifies the maximum of the correlation function of the time offset.

According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention the thus determined time offset is permitted as the time shift of the correlation signals to the target data calculating when the correlation function satisfies a predetermined evaluation criterion.

This review of the correlation function makes it possible to set a simple threshold decision, the false alarm rate for target detection, so that only the time differences to calculate the target data is permitted to ensure compliance with the specified false alarm rate.

Exceeds the threshold the division result, the time shift determined is allowed for the calculation of the target data.

The width of the predetermined time intervals is chosen to be smaller than the pulse length and greater than the range resolution of the transmission pulse.

The invention is described in detail with reference to an illustrated embodiment in the drawings in the following. Der Frequenzverlauf kann dabei linear wie ausgezogen dargestellt oder hyperbolisch sein, wie er in The frequency response can thereby shown extended linear or hyperbolic, as in 3 3 strichpunktiert eingezeichnet ist.

Ein solcher Sendeimpuls wird als dopplerinvariant bezeichnet. Such a transmission pulse is called dopplerinvariant.

Die Frequenzzu- und -abnahme kann aber auch einen anderen Verlauf aufweisen. It is only important that frequency increase and frequency decrease run smoothly.

Such a linear antenna is provided as a trailing antenna Towed Array or as an attached to the boat body side antenna Flank Array , sometimes referred to as lift streamer is known.

Alle Hydrofone All hydrophones 15 15 werden gemeinsam betrieben. Durch eine entsprechende Signalverarbeitung aller elektrischen Ausgangssignale der Hydrofone By a corresponding signal processing of all the electrical output signals of the hydrophones 15 15 wird in einem sog.

Richtungsbildner is in a so-called. In einem Referenzsignalspeicher In a reference signal memory 17 17 wird einerseits ein Muster- oder Referenzsignal abgespeichert, das den gleichen ansteigenden Frequenzverlauf wie der pro Sendeperiode abgestrahlte Sendeimpuls aufweist und andererseits ein Muster- oder Referenzsignal abgespeichert, das den gleichen abfallenden Frequenzverlauf wie der pro Sendeperiode abgestrahlte Sendeimpuls aufweist.

Die beiden entstehenden Korrelationssignale werden jeweils einem Betragsbildner The two resulting correlation signals are each an absolute-value 20 20 bzw.

The chosen time window is smaller than the pulse length t p of the transmit pulse, but much larger than the range resolution, that is greater than the reciprocal of the bandwidth of the transmitted pulse and greater than the radial target length.

Thus the corresponding to a target maximum clearly stands out in each normalized magnitude profile, so that the time lag between the peaks very accurately detected in the two normalized magnitude profiles and the time difference At between the correlation signals can be determined with minimal error.

The maximum of the correlation function indicates the time shift of the maxima and the time difference At between the two normalized magnitude profiles.

Das Maximum der Korrelationsfunktion wird mit Hilfe eines Maximumdetektors The maximum of the correlation function using a maximum detector 25 25 bestimmt.

Since the time difference At is influenced by the Doppler effect caused by the frequency shift of the received signal, this time shift is.

To comply with a predetermined false alarm rate, the determined time offset between the maxima of the two normalized magnitude profiles is only permitted as the time shift.

Im Dividierer in the divider 35 35 wird die Korrelationsfunktion k durch dem Mittelwert the correlation function is by the average value k k k dividiert.

A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the time window is substantially smaller than the pulse duration and substantially greater than the range resolution of the transmission pulse and greater than the radial target length is selected.

A method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the normalized magnitude profiles of the two correlation signals are correlated and the time offset of the maximum of the correlation function is determined.

A method according to claim 3, characterized in that the determined time offset is permitted as the time shift for calculation of the target data when the correlation function satisfies an assessment criterion.

A method according to claim 4, characterized in that formed in each normalized magnitude profile of the two correlation signals, the variance for predeterminable time intervals, the correlation function is divided by the product of the square root variances, and the overshooting of a predetermined threshold by the division result as the fulfillment of the evaluation criterion is interpreted.

A method according to claim 4, characterized in that the average value of the correlation function is calculated for predeterminable time intervals, the correlation function is divided by the mean value and the exceeding of a predetermined threshold by the division result as the fulfillment of the evaluation criterion is interpreted.

Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass anstelle des Mittelwerts der Median der Korrelationsfunktion verwendet wird.

A method according to claim 6, characterized in that the correlation function is used instead of the average value of the median. A method according to any of claims , characterized in that the width of the time intervals is chosen to be smaller than the pulse length and considerably greater than the range resolution of the transmission pulse.

A method according to any one of claims , characterized in that the time t 1 between the transmission of the transmission pulse and the occurrence of the first maximum is measured in the normalized magnitude profiles of the correlation signals and the dual target distance as a product of the sound velocity with the time shift At increased measurement time t 1 is calculated.

A method according to any of claims , characterized in that the rising and falling frequency profile of the transmission pulse is chosen to be linear or hyperbolic, and has the same rise and decay behavior.

A method according to any of claims , characterized in that the transmission pulse has a large time-bandwidth product.

DE DEB3 en Phased hydrophone array for active sonar system oscillator connected to direction control signal circuit and correlator circuits and reference signal circuit.

DE DED1 en EP EPB1 en Method for processing signals of individual incident direction for ships in e. Multiplicative signal processor for target detection systems with sequential doppler search.

Echo ranging system for detecting velocity and range of targets using composite doppler invariant-like transmissions with suppression of false targets.

Echo ranging system for detecting velocity of targets using composite doppler invariant transmissions. Sound wave direction detection method for sonar device has electroacoustic signals processed via non-linear function before summation to provide reception antenna group signal.

A method of speech recognition with a microphone and voice characteristics adjustment is achieved. Process and device for measuring the distance between two objects, in particular between vehicles.

A method for determining the distance between an object and a device of varying location, in particular a motor vehicle. System for measuring the distance to objects by means of electromagnetic pulses.

Echo signal monitoring device, for use on motor vehicle, has mode for determining relative position of transmitter and receiver units with respect to each other using returned echo.

Monitoring system for surveillance of an immediate vicinity, especially the immediate external vicinity of a motor vehicle, uses a time-of-flight method based on ultrasound.

Ultrasonic measuring apparatus and method for evaluating an ultrasonic signal. Method for determining distance and relative speed of remote object from observing point, involves transmitting signals synchronous to other signals, where each of former signals is differentiated from latter signals by frequency offset.

Cross-correlating vehicular ultrasound radar-ranging system providing collision warning. Method and apparatus for coordination of distance and radial velocity of an object by means of radar signals.

Semiconductor device and method of forming the same to the correlation detection. The invention relates to a method for determination of target data with an active sonar system of the kind defined in the preamble of claim 1.

Mit einer Aktiv-Sonaranlage werden Festziele und bewegte Ziele unter Wasser detektiert und geortet, indem von ausgesendeten Sendeimpulsen reflektierte Anteile, sog.

Echosignale, aus unterschiedlichen Empfangsrichtungen empfangen werden. With an active sonar system fixed targets and moving targets are detected and located under water, by making use of the emitted transmission pulses reflected portions, so-called.

Echo signals received from different incoming directions. The received signals are evaluated with respect to propagation time between transmission and reception, and with respect to the costs associated with the Doppler frequency shift between the transmission and reception frequency to determine distance and motion of the target, namely its radial velocity which is the velocity in the direction of the receiving location.

Since the Doppler shift is received both in the removing as well as in the velocity determination, the waveform of the transmission signal is selected depending on the task.

Zum Bestimmen von Entfernung und Geschwindigkeit werden Muster- oder Referenzsignale verwendet, die aus dem Sendeimpuls durch Frequenz- und Zeitverschiebungen abgeleitet werden.

For determining distance and speed of sample or reference signals are used which are derived from the transmitted pulse by frequency and time shifts.

Votes received signal and the reference signal exactly the same, the time shift and the frequency shift made according to the Doppler frequency of the reference signal indicates the distance and speed of the target toward the receiving location.

Die erforderliche Zeit- und Frequenzverschiebung wird durch Korrelation der Echosignale mit den Referenzsignalen ermittelt. The required time and frequency shift is determined by correlation of the echo signals with the reference signals.

Das Korrelationsergebnis weist ein Maximum auf, wenn Empfangs- und Referenzsignal sich decken. The correlation result has a maximum when receiving and reference signal coincide.

Deviations lead to a reduction of this value. Ambiguity-Funktion in einer Zeit-Frequenzebene oder einer Entfernungs-Geschwindigkeitsebene darstellbar.

The dependence of the time and frequency error between the received signal and the reference signal, ie the distance and speed errors for the correlation result is, as so-called.

Ambiguity function in a time-frequency plane or a distance-speed plane represented. The ambiguity function has the error is zero, so the origin of the time-frequency plane, its maximum and is dependent less on the selected waveform of the transmitted pulse at the frequency or time deviations.

To achieve long ranges large pulse width of the transmitted pulses are necessary. Die Ambiguity-Funktion linear frequenzmodulierter Sendeimpulse, sog.

The ambiguity function linearly frequency-modulated transmitter pulses, so called. LFM pulses, has the shape of a blade back, which is rotated in the time-frequency plane to the frequency axis and including the time axis, an angle, so that a larger frequency error of the reference signal relative to the Empangssignal for a distance measurement with little error is permissible.

The width and extension of the blade ridge of the ambiguity function in the time-frequency plane are thereby influenced, that during the pulse length of the transmission frequency does not rise linearly with time, but square or cubic function of time AW Rihazek "principal of high resolution radar", McGrowhill Bugcompany , page The bigger the exponent, the more the back of the ambiguity function flattens and rotates back to the frequency axis, so that authorized frequency deviations between received signal and reference signal can be further increased even without the distance measurement has larger errors.

The achievable with such a transmission pulse sensitivity of velocity measurement is significantly less than with a LFM pulse, however, the sensitivity of the distance measurement is much greater.

Ein solcher Sendeimpuls wird als dopplerinvarianter Sendeimpuls bezeichnet. Such a transmission pulse is called dopplerinvarianter transmit pulse.

It is known to assemble a transmit pulse of two frequency-modulated signals, the transmission frequencies in opposite directions to increase and decrease US 3,, The frequency response over time is "v" shaped or gable roof shape.

Das Referenzsignal weist den gleichen Frequenzverlauf auf. The reference signal has the same frequency response. The associated ambiguity function is composed of two intersecting back, which are rotated opposite angles to the frequency axis and include an equal positive or negative angle relative to the time axis.

The distance measurement is carried out by correlating the reception signal with the reference signal. Die daraus hervorgehende Korrelationsfunktion weist zwei Korrelationsmaxima auf, die einen zeitlichen Abstand voneinander haben.

The resulting correlation function has two correlation maxima that have a temporal distance. Mit diesem Zeitabstand und der Zeit, die zwischen dem Senden des Sendeimpulses und dem Auftreten des ersten Maximums in der Korrelationsfunktion vergeht, wird die doppelte Entfernung zum Ziel berechnet.

With this time interval and the time that elapses between transmitting the transmit pulse and the occurrence of the first maximum in the correlation function, double the distance is calculated to the destination.

However, caused by the Doppler effect frequency shift of the echo signal affects the time interval between the correlation maxima, so that the time interval is thus a measure of the radial velocity of the target.

The accuracy of the distance and velocity determination is therefore particularly dependent on the exact determination of this time interval.

The object is achieved by the features in claim. The process has the advantage that unlike the correlation signals in the normalized magnitude profiles the maxima much more prominent and disorders are leveled going on, so that the time difference between the correlation signals by determining the time offset of the peaks in the normalized magnitude profiles of the correlation signals very can be determined more accurately.

The time or distance window for the normalization is advantageously less than the pulse duration and greater than the range resolution of the transmission pulse, that is greater than the reciprocal of the bandwidth of the transmitted pulse, and selected to be greater than the radial target length, the range gate is slidably pushed over the amount gradients.

Expedient embodiments of the method according to the invention with advantageous developments and refinements of the invention emerge from the further claims.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention the amount profiles of the correlation signals are correlated with each other, the two curves sum to determine the time offset between the maxima, and then specifies the maximum of the correlation function of the time offset.

According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention the thus determined time offset is permitted as the time shift of the correlation signals to the target data calculating when the correlation function satisfies a predetermined evaluation criterion.

This review of the correlation function makes it possible to set a simple threshold decision, the false alarm rate for target detection, so that only the time differences to calculate the target data is permitted to ensure compliance with the specified false alarm rate.

Exceeds the threshold the division result, the time shift determined is allowed for the calculation of the target data.

The width of the predetermined time intervals is chosen to be smaller than the pulse length and greater than the range resolution of the transmission pulse.

The invention is described in detail with reference to an illustrated embodiment in the drawings in the following. In the below-described method for the determination of target data such as radial velocity of the target and distance of the target at a receiving location at the receiving an active sonar system is used, the acoustic transmission pulses of the pulse length T P emits with a large time-bandwidth product, a over time t rising and have a function of time t falling frequency response, as shown in Fig.

Der Frequenzverlauf kann dabei linear wie ausgezogen dargestellt oder hyperbolisch sein, wie er in Fig. The frequency response may in this case as shown undressed linear or hyperbolic, as it is shown in phantom in FIG.

Ein solcher Sendeimpuls wird als dopplerinvariant bezeichnet. Such a transmission pulse is called dopplerinvariant. Die Frequenzzu- und -abnahme kann aber auch einen anderen Verlauf aufweisen.

It is only important that frequency increase and frequency decrease run smoothly. Zur Generierung der beschriebenen Sendeimpulse weist - wie im Blockschaltbild der Fig.

To receive the echo signals, the active sonar installation having an electro-acoustic receiving antenna 14, which is a so-called. Linear antenna in the embodiment of Fig.

Such a linear antenna is provided as a trailing antenna Towed Array or as an attached to the boat body side antenna Flank Array , sometimes referred to as lift streamer is known.

Alle Hydrofone 15 werden gemeinsam betrieben. All hydrophones 15 are jointly operated. Durch eine entsprechende Signalverarbeitung aller elektrischen Ausgangssignale der Hydrofone 15 wird in einem sog.

By a corresponding signal processing of all the electrical output signals of the hydrophones 15, a directional characteristic of the receiving antenna 14 is formed in a so-called.

Gruppensignal an, das im folgenden als Empfangssignal der Empfangsantenne 14 bezeichnet wird. Group signal, which is hereinafter referred to as a receiving signal of the receiving antenna In einem Referenzsignalspeicher 17 wird einerseits ein Muster- oder Referenzsignal abgespeichert, das den gleichen ansteigenden Frequenzverlauf wie der pro Sendeperiode abgestrahlte Sendeimpuls aufweist und andererseits ein Muster- oder Referenzsignal abgespeichert, das den gleichen abfallenden Frequenzverlauf wie der pro Sendeperiode abgestrahlte Sendeimpuls aufweist.

In a reference signal memory 17, a pattern or reference signal is stored on the one hand, which has the same rising frequency profile as the per transmission period emitted transmission pulse, and on the other hand is stored, a sample or reference signal, which has the same falling frequency profile as the per transmission period emitted transmission pulse.

Die beiden entstehenden Korrelationssignale werden jeweils einem Betragsbildner 20 bzw. The two resulting correlation signals are each supplied to an absolute-value generator 20 or 21 in which the amounts of the two correlation signals are formed as a function of time.

The chosen time window is smaller than the pulse length t p of the transmit pulse, but much larger than the range resolution, that is greater than the reciprocal of the bandwidth of the transmitted pulse and greater than the radial target length.

Thus the corresponding to a target maximum clearly stands out in each normalized magnitude profile, so that the time lag between the peaks very accurately detected in the two normalized magnitude profiles and the time difference At between the correlation signals can be determined with minimal error.

The maximum of the correlation function indicates the time shift of the maxima and the time difference At between the two normalized magnitude profiles.

Das Maximum der Korrelationsfunktion wird mit Hilfe eines Maximumdetektors 25 bestimmt. Since the time difference At is influenced by the Doppler effect caused by the frequency shift of the received signal, this time shift is.

To comply with a predetermined false alarm rate, the determined time offset between the maxima of the two normalized magnitude profiles is only permitted as the time shift.

Dies ist in Fig. This is indicated in Fig. In einer in Fig. In a highlighted in FIG.

Divisionsergebnis Video

Division mit Rest, Teil 1: BESSERES Ergebnis hinschreiben, weil (siehe unten).

1 thoughts on “Divisionsergebnis

Hinterlasse eine Antwort

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *