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The specific epithet sativa means "sown". While folk etymology sometimes assumes the name is a mix of parsley and turnip , it actually comes from Middle English pasnepe , alteration influenced by nep , turnip of Old French pasnaie now panais from Latin pastinum , a kind of fork.
The wild parsnip from which the modern cultivated varieties were derived is a plant of dry rough grassland and waste places, particularly on chalk and limestone soils.
Sandy and loamy soils are preferable to silt, clay, and stony ground; the latter produces short, forked roots.
Parsnip seed significantly deteriorates in viability if stored for long. Seeds are usually planted in early spring, as soon as the ground can be worked to a fine tilth , in the position where the plants are to grow.
The growing plants are thinned and kept weed-free. Harvesting begins in late fall after the first frost , and continues through winter. The rows can be covered with straw to enable the crop to be lifted during frosty weather.
Parsnip leaves are sometimes tunnelled by the larvae of the celery fly Euleia heraclei. Irregular, pale brown passages can be seen between the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves.
The effects are most serious on young plants, as whole leaves may shrivel and die. Treatment is by removing affected leaflets or whole leaves, or by chemical means.
The crop can be attacked by larvae of the carrot fly Chamaepsila rosae. This pest feeds on the outer layers of the root, burrowing its way inside later in the season.
Seedlings may be killed while larger roots are spoiled. The damage done provides a point of entry for fungal rots and canker.
The fly is attracted by the smell of bruised tissue. Parsnip is used as a food plant by the larvae of some lepidopteran species, including the parsnip swallowtail Papilio polyxenes , the common swift moth Korscheltellus lupulina , the garden dart moth Euxoa nigricans , and the ghost moth Hepialus humuli.
Parsnip canker is a serious disease of this crop. Black or orange-brown patches occur around the crown and shoulders of the root accompanied by cracking and hardening of the flesh.
It is more likely to occur when seed is sown into cold, wet soil, the pH of the soil is too low, or the roots have already been damaged by carrot fly larvae.
In Europe, Mycocentrospora acerina has been found to cause a black rot that kills the plant early. A white or buff -colored mold grows on the surface.
The pathogen is most common in temperate and subtropical regions that have a cool wet season. Violet root rot caused by the fungus Helicobasidium purpureum sometimes affects the roots, covering them with a purplish mat to which soil particles adhere.
The leaves become distorted and discolored and the mycelium can spread through the soil between plants. Some weeds can harbour this fungus and it is more prevalent in wet, acid conditions.
Infestation by this causes results in yellowing of the leaf and loss of foliage. Moderate temperatures and high humidity favor the development of the disease.
Several viruses are known to infect the plant, including seed-borne strawberry latent ringspot virus , parsnip yellow fleck virus , parsnip leafcurl virus , parsnip mosaic potyvirus , and potyvirus celery mosaic virus.
The latter causes clearing or yellowing of the areas of the leaf immediately beside the veins, the appearance of ochre mosaic spots, and crinkling of the leaves in infected plants.
While the root of the parsnip is edible, handling the shoots and leaves of the plant requires caution as the sap is toxic. The problem is most likely to occur on a sunny day when gathering foliage or pulling up old plants that have gone to seed.
The symptoms have mostly been mild to moderate. The toxic properties of parsnip extracts are resistant to heating, and, to periods of storage lasting several months.
Toxic symptoms can also affect livestock and poultry in parts of their bodies where their skin is exposed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Not to be confused with Cow parsnip or Water parsnip. Carrots and Related Vegetable Umbelliferae. Kaloo, G; Bergh, B. Domestication of Plants in the Old World 3rd ed.
Species Plantarum in Latin. Cultivated Vegetables of the World: Retrieved 11 October The Companion for the Kitchen Garden.
Dioches, Cleophantus, Philistio, and Orpheus, as well as Pliny, all wrote on the aphrodisiac quality of the parsnip.
Medicinal Plant Images Database. School of Chinese Medicine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. A troublesome species of increasing concern" PDF.
The Celery and the Parsnip". Journal of Horticulture and Practical Gardening. The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers. Henry Doubleday Research Association.
Natural History Museum, London. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. The Poison Garden Website.